Manganese (Mn) is an essential element that is involved in the synthesis and activation of many enzymes and in the regulation of the metabolism of glucose and lipids in humans. In addition, Mn is one of the required components for Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) that is mainly responsible for scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondrial oxidative stress. Both Mn deficiency and intoxication are associated with adverse metabolic and neuropsychiatric effects. Over the past few decades, the prevalence of metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2MD), obesity, insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and hepatic steatosis, has increased dramatically. Previous studies have found that ROS generation, oxidative stress, and inflammation are critical for the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. In addition, deficiency in dietary Mn as well as excessive Mn exposure could increase ROS generation and result in further oxidative stress. However, the relationship between Mn and metabolic diseases is not clear. In this review, we provide insights into the role Mn plays in the prevention and development of metabolic diseases.