Thiamine acts as a coenzyme for transketolase (Tk) and for the pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes, enzymes which play a fundamental role for intracellular glucose metabolism. The relationship between thiamine and diabetes mellitus (DM) has been reported in the literature. Thiamine levels and thiamine-dependent enzyme activities have been reduced in DM. Genetic studies provide opportunity to link the relationship between thiamine and DM (such as Tk, SLC19A2 gene, transcription factor Sp1, α-1-antitrypsin, and p53). Thiamine and its derivatives have been demonstrated to prevent the activation of the biochemical pathways (increased flux through the polyol pathway, formation of advanced glycation end-products, activation of protein kinase C, and increased flux through the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway) induced by hyperglycemia in DM.Thiamine definitively has a role in the diabetic endothelial vascular diseases (micro and macroangiopathy), lipid profile, retinopathy, nephropathy, cardiopathy, and neuropathy.